module Minitest::Assertions

Minitest Assertions. All assertion methods accept a msg which is printed if the assertion fails.

Protocol: Nearly everything here boils up to assert, which expects to be able to increment an instance accessor named assertions. This is not provided by Assertions and must be provided by the thing including Assertions. See Minitest::Runnable for an example.

Public Class Methods

diff() click to toggle source

Returns the diff command to use in diff. Tries to intelligently figure out what diff to use.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 29
def self.diff
  return @diff if defined? @diff

  @diff = if (RbConfig::CONFIG["host_os"] =~ /mswin|mingw/ &&
              system("diff.exe", __FILE__, __FILE__)) then
            "diff.exe -u"
          elsif system("gdiff", __FILE__, __FILE__)
            "gdiff -u" # solaris and kin suck
          elsif system("diff", __FILE__, __FILE__)
            "diff -u"
          else
            nil
          end
end
diff=(o) click to toggle source

Set the diff command to use in diff.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 47
def self.diff= o
  @diff = o
end

Public Instance Methods

assert(test, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless test is truthy.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 178
def assert test, msg = nil
  self.assertions += 1
  unless test then
    msg ||= "Expected #{mu_pp test} to be truthy."
    msg = msg.call if Proc === msg
    raise Minitest::Assertion, msg
  end
  true
end
assert_empty(obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless obj is empty.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 195
def assert_empty obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to be empty" }
  assert_respond_to obj, :empty?
  assert obj.empty?, msg
end
assert_equal(exp, act, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless exp == act printing the difference between the two, if possible.

If there is no visible difference but the assertion fails, you should suspect that your #== is buggy, or your inspect output is missing crucial details. For nicer structural diffing, set Minitest::Test.make_my_diffs_pretty!

For floats use assert_in_delta.

See also: Minitest::Assertions.diff

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 216
def assert_equal exp, act, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg, E) { diff exp, act }
  result = assert exp == act, msg

  if nil == exp then
    if Minitest::VERSION =~ /^6/ then
      refute_nil exp, "Use assert_nil if expecting nil."
    else
      where = Minitest.filter_backtrace(caller).first
      where = where.split(/:in /, 2).first # clean up noise

      warn "DEPRECATED: Use assert_nil if expecting nil from #{where}. This will fail in Minitest 6."
    end
  end

  result
end
assert_in_delta(exp, act, delta = 0.001, msg = nil) click to toggle source

For comparing Floats. Fails unless exp and act are within delta of each other.

assert_in_delta Math::PI, (22.0 / 7.0), 0.01
# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 240
def assert_in_delta exp, act, delta = 0.001, msg = nil
  n = (exp - act).abs
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected |#{exp} - #{act}| (#{n}) to be <= #{delta}"
  }
  assert delta >= n, msg
end
assert_in_epsilon(exp, act, epsilon = 0.001, msg = nil) click to toggle source

For comparing Floats. Fails unless exp and act have a relative error less than epsilon.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 252
def assert_in_epsilon exp, act, epsilon = 0.001, msg = nil
  assert_in_delta exp, act, [exp.abs, act.abs].min * epsilon, msg
end
assert_includes(collection, obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless collection includes obj.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 259
def assert_includes collection, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(collection)} to include #{mu_pp(obj)}"
  }
  assert_respond_to collection, :include?
  assert collection.include?(obj), msg
end
assert_instance_of(cls, obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless obj is an instance of cls.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 270
def assert_instance_of cls, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to be an instance of #{cls}, not #{obj.class}"
  }

  assert obj.instance_of?(cls), msg
end
assert_kind_of(cls, obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless obj is a kind of cls.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 281
def assert_kind_of cls, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to be a kind of #{cls}, not #{obj.class}" }

  assert obj.kind_of?(cls), msg
end
assert_match(matcher, obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless matcher =~ obj.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 291
def assert_match matcher, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp matcher} to match #{mu_pp obj}" }
  assert_respond_to matcher, :"=~"
  matcher = Regexp.new Regexp.escape matcher if String === matcher
  assert matcher =~ obj, msg
end
assert_mock(mock) click to toggle source

Assert that the mock verifies correctly.

# File lib/minitest/mock.rb, line 184
def assert_mock mock
  assert mock.verify
end
assert_nil(obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless obj is nil

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 301
def assert_nil obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to be nil" }
  assert obj.nil?, msg
end
assert_operator(o1, op, o2 = UNDEFINED, msg = nil) click to toggle source

For testing with binary operators. Eg:

assert_operator 5, :<=, 4
# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 311
def assert_operator o1, op, o2 = UNDEFINED, msg = nil
  return assert_predicate o1, op, msg if UNDEFINED == o2
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(o1)} to be #{op} #{mu_pp(o2)}" }
  assert o1.__send__(op, o2), msg
end
assert_output(stdout = nil, stderr = nil) { || ... } click to toggle source

Fails if stdout or stderr do not output the expected results. Pass in nil if you don't care about that streams output. Pass in “” if you require it to be silent. Pass in a regexp if you want to pattern match.

assert_output(/hey/) { method_with_output }

NOTE: this uses capture_io, not capture_subprocess_io.

See also: assert_silent

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 329
def assert_output stdout = nil, stderr = nil
  flunk "assert_output requires a block to capture output." unless
    block_given?

  out, err = capture_io do
    yield
  end

  err_msg = Regexp === stderr ? :assert_match : :assert_equal if stderr
  out_msg = Regexp === stdout ? :assert_match : :assert_equal if stdout

  y = send err_msg, stderr, err, "In stderr" if err_msg
  x = send out_msg, stdout, out, "In stdout" if out_msg

  (!stdout || x) && (!stderr || y)
rescue Assertion
  raise
rescue => e
  raise UnexpectedError, e
end
assert_path_exists(path, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless path exists.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 353
def assert_path_exists path, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected path '#{path}' to exist" }
  assert File.exist?(path), msg
end
assert_predicate(o1, op, msg = nil) click to toggle source

For testing with predicates. Eg:

assert_predicate str, :empty?

This is really meant for specs and is front-ended by assert_operator:

str.must_be :empty?
# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 367
def assert_predicate o1, op, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(o1)} to be #{op}" }
  assert o1.__send__(op), msg
end
assert_raises(*exp) { || ... } click to toggle source

Fails unless the block raises one of exp. Returns the exception matched so you can check the message, attributes, etc.

exp takes an optional message on the end to help explain failures and defaults to StandardError if no exception class is passed. Eg:

assert_raises(CustomError) { method_with_custom_error }

With custom error message:

assert_raises(CustomError, 'This should have raised CustomError') { method_with_custom_error }

Using the returned object:

error = assert_raises(CustomError) do
  raise CustomError, 'This is really bad'
end

assert_equal 'This is really bad', error.message
# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 394
def assert_raises *exp
  flunk "assert_raises requires a block to capture errors." unless
    block_given?

  msg = "#{exp.pop}.\n" if String === exp.last
  exp << StandardError if exp.empty?

  begin
    yield
  rescue *exp => e
    pass # count assertion
    return e
  rescue Minitest::Assertion # incl Skip & UnexpectedError
    # don't count assertion
    raise
  rescue SignalException, SystemExit
    raise
  rescue Exception => e
    flunk proc {
      exception_details(e, "#{msg}#{mu_pp(exp)} exception expected, not")
    }
  end

  exp = exp.first if exp.size == 1

  flunk "#{msg}#{mu_pp(exp)} expected but nothing was raised."
end
assert_respond_to(obj, meth, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless obj responds to meth.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 425
def assert_respond_to obj, meth, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} (#{obj.class}) to respond to ##{meth}"
  }
  assert obj.respond_to?(meth), msg
end
assert_same(exp, act, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails unless exp and act are equal?

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 435
def assert_same exp, act, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    data = [mu_pp(act), act.object_id, mu_pp(exp), exp.object_id]
    "Expected %s (oid=%d) to be the same as %s (oid=%d)" % data
  }
  assert exp.equal?(act), msg
end
assert_send(send_ary, m = nil) click to toggle source

send_ary is a receiver, message and arguments.

Fails unless the call returns a true value

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 448
def assert_send send_ary, m = nil
  where = Minitest.filter_backtrace(caller).first
  where = where.split(/:in /, 2).first # clean up noise
  warn "DEPRECATED: assert_send. From #{where}"

  recv, msg, *args = send_ary
  m = message(m) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(recv)}.#{msg}(*#{mu_pp(args)}) to return true" }
  assert recv.__send__(msg, *args), m
end
assert_silent() { || ... } click to toggle source

Fails if the block outputs anything to stderr or stdout.

See also: assert_output

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 464
def assert_silent
  assert_output "", "" do
    yield
  end
end
assert_throws(sym, msg = nil) { || ... } click to toggle source

Fails unless the block throws sym

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 473
def assert_throws sym, msg = nil
  default = "Expected #{mu_pp(sym)} to have been thrown"
  caught = true
  catch(sym) do
    begin
      yield
    rescue ThreadError => e       # wtf?!? 1.8 + threads == suck
      default += ", not \:#{e.message[/uncaught throw \`(\w+?)\'/, 1]}"
    rescue ArgumentError => e     # 1.9 exception
      raise e unless e.message.include?("uncaught throw")
      default += ", not #{e.message.split(/ /).last}"
    rescue NameError => e         # 1.8 exception
      raise e unless e.name == sym
      default += ", not #{e.name.inspect}"
    end
    caught = false
  end

  assert caught, message(msg) { default }
rescue Assertion
  raise
rescue => e
  raise UnexpectedError, e
end
capture_io() { || ... } click to toggle source

Captures $stdout and $stderr into strings:

out, err = capture_io do
  puts "Some info"
  warn "You did a bad thing"
end

assert_match %r%info%, out
assert_match %r%bad%, err

NOTE: For efficiency, this method uses StringIO and does not capture IO for subprocesses. Use capture_subprocess_io for that.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 513
def capture_io
  _synchronize do
    begin
      captured_stdout, captured_stderr = StringIO.new, StringIO.new

      orig_stdout, orig_stderr = $stdout, $stderr
      $stdout, $stderr         = captured_stdout, captured_stderr

      yield

      return captured_stdout.string, captured_stderr.string
    ensure
      $stdout = orig_stdout
      $stderr = orig_stderr
    end
  end
end
capture_subprocess_io() { || ... } click to toggle source

Captures $stdout and $stderr into strings, using Tempfile to ensure that subprocess IO is captured as well.

out, err = capture_subprocess_io do
  system "echo Some info"
  system "echo You did a bad thing 1>&2"
end

assert_match %r%info%, out
assert_match %r%bad%, err

NOTE: This method is approximately 10x slower than capture_io so only use it when you need to test the output of a subprocess.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 546
def capture_subprocess_io
  _synchronize do
    begin
      require "tempfile"

      captured_stdout, captured_stderr = Tempfile.new("out"), Tempfile.new("err")

      orig_stdout, orig_stderr = $stdout.dup, $stderr.dup
      $stdout.reopen captured_stdout
      $stderr.reopen captured_stderr

      yield

      $stdout.rewind
      $stderr.rewind

      return captured_stdout.read, captured_stderr.read
    ensure
      captured_stdout.unlink
      captured_stderr.unlink
      $stdout.reopen orig_stdout
      $stderr.reopen orig_stderr

      orig_stdout.close
      orig_stderr.close
      captured_stdout.close
      captured_stderr.close
    end
  end
end
diff(exp, act) click to toggle source

Returns a diff between exp and act. If there is no known diff command or if it doesn't make sense to diff the output (single line, short output), then it simply returns a basic comparison between the two.

See things_to_diff for more info.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 59
def diff exp, act
  result = nil

  expect, butwas = things_to_diff(exp, act)

  return "Expected: #{mu_pp exp}\n  Actual: #{mu_pp act}" unless
    expect

  Tempfile.open("expect") do |a|
    a.puts expect
    a.flush

    Tempfile.open("butwas") do |b|
      b.puts butwas
      b.flush

      result = `#{Minitest::Assertions.diff} #{a.path} #{b.path}`
      result.sub!(/^\-\-\- .+/, "--- expected")
      result.sub!(/^\+\+\+ .+/, "+++ actual")

      if result.empty? then
        klass = exp.class
        result = [
                  "No visible difference in the #{klass}#inspect output.\n",
                  "You should look at the implementation of #== on ",
                  "#{klass} or its members.\n",
                  expect,
                 ].join
      end
    end
  end

  result
end
exception_details(e, msg) click to toggle source

Returns details for exception e

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 580
def exception_details e, msg
  [
   "#{msg}",
   "Class: <#{e.class}>",
   "Message: <#{e.message.inspect}>",
   "---Backtrace---",
   "#{Minitest.filter_backtrace(e.backtrace).join("\n")}",
   "---------------",
  ].join "\n"
end
fail_after(y,m,d,msg) click to toggle source

Fails after a given date (in the local time zone). This allows you to put time-bombs in your tests if you need to keep something around until a later date lest you forget about it.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 596
def fail_after y,m,d,msg
  flunk msg if Time.now > Time.local(y, m, d)
end
flunk(msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails with msg.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 603
def flunk msg = nil
  msg ||= "Epic Fail!"
  assert false, msg
end
message(msg = nil, ending = nil, &default) click to toggle source

Returns a proc that will output msg along with the default message.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 611
def message msg = nil, ending = nil, &default
  proc {
    msg = msg.call.chomp(".") if Proc === msg
    custom_message = "#{msg}.\n" unless msg.nil? or msg.to_s.empty?
    "#{custom_message}#{default.call}#{ending || "."}"
  }
end
mu_pp(obj) click to toggle source

This returns a human-readable version of obj. By default inspect is called. You can override this to use pretty_inspect if you want.

See Minitest::Test.make_my_diffs_pretty!

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 129
def mu_pp obj
  s = obj.inspect

  if defined? Encoding then
    s = s.encode Encoding.default_external

    if String === obj && (obj.encoding != Encoding.default_external ||
                          !obj.valid_encoding?) then
      enc = "# encoding: #{obj.encoding}"
      val = "#    valid: #{obj.valid_encoding?}"
      s = "#{enc}\n#{val}\n#{s}"
    end
  end

  s
end
mu_pp_for_diff(obj) click to toggle source

This returns a diff-able more human-readable version of obj. This differs from the regular mu_pp because it expands escaped newlines and makes hex-values (like object_ids) generic. This uses mu_pp to do the first pass and then cleans it up.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 152
def mu_pp_for_diff obj
  str = mu_pp obj

  # both '\n' & '\\n' (_after_ mu_pp (aka inspect))
  single = !!str.match(/(?<!\\|^)\\n/)
  double = !!str.match(/(?<=\\|^)\\n/)

  process =
    if single ^ double then
      if single then
        lambda { |s| s == "\\n"   ? "\n"    : s } # unescape
      else
        lambda { |s| s == "\\\\n" ? "\\n\n" : s } # unescape a bit, add nls
      end
    else
      :itself                                     # leave it alone
    end

  str.
    gsub(/\\?\\n/, &process).
    gsub(/:0x[a-fA-F0-9]{4,}/m, ":0xXXXXXX") # anonymize hex values
end
pass(_msg = nil) click to toggle source

used for counting assertions

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 622
def pass _msg = nil
  assert true
end
refute(test, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if test is truthy.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 629
def refute test, msg = nil
  msg ||= message { "Expected #{mu_pp(test)} to not be truthy" }
  not assert !test, msg
end
refute_empty(obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if obj is empty.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 637
def refute_empty obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to not be empty" }
  assert_respond_to obj, :empty?
  refute obj.empty?, msg
end
refute_equal(exp, act, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if exp == act.

For floats use refute_in_delta.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 648
def refute_equal exp, act, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(act)} to not be equal to #{mu_pp(exp)}"
  }
  refute exp == act, msg
end
refute_in_delta(exp, act, delta = 0.001, msg = nil) click to toggle source

For comparing Floats. Fails if exp is within delta of act.

refute_in_delta Math::PI, (22.0 / 7.0)
# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 660
def refute_in_delta exp, act, delta = 0.001, msg = nil
  n = (exp - act).abs
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected |#{exp} - #{act}| (#{n}) to not be <= #{delta}"
  }
  refute delta >= n, msg
end
refute_in_epsilon(a, b, epsilon = 0.001, msg = nil) click to toggle source

For comparing Floats. Fails if exp and act have a relative error less than epsilon.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 672
def refute_in_epsilon a, b, epsilon = 0.001, msg = nil
  refute_in_delta a, b, a * epsilon, msg
end
refute_includes(collection, obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if collection includes obj.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 679
def refute_includes collection, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(collection)} to not include #{mu_pp(obj)}"
  }
  assert_respond_to collection, :include?
  refute collection.include?(obj), msg
end
refute_instance_of(cls, obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if obj is an instance of cls.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 690
def refute_instance_of cls, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to not be an instance of #{cls}"
  }
  refute obj.instance_of?(cls), msg
end
refute_kind_of(cls, obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if obj is a kind of cls.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 700
def refute_kind_of cls, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to not be a kind of #{cls}" }
  refute obj.kind_of?(cls), msg
end
refute_match(matcher, obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if matcher =~ obj.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 708
def refute_match matcher, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp matcher} to not match #{mu_pp obj}" }
  assert_respond_to matcher, :"=~"
  matcher = Regexp.new Regexp.escape matcher if String === matcher
  refute matcher =~ obj, msg
end
refute_nil(obj, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if obj is nil.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 718
def refute_nil obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to not be nil" }
  refute obj.nil?, msg
end
refute_operator(o1, op, o2 = UNDEFINED, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if o1 is not op o2. Eg:

refute_operator 1, :>, 2 #=> pass
refute_operator 1, :<, 2 #=> fail
# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 729
def refute_operator o1, op, o2 = UNDEFINED, msg = nil
  return refute_predicate o1, op, msg if UNDEFINED == o2
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(o1)} to not be #{op} #{mu_pp(o2)}" }
  refute o1.__send__(op, o2), msg
end
refute_path_exists(path, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if path exists.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 738
def refute_path_exists path, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected path '#{path}' to not exist" }
  refute File.exist?(path), msg
end
refute_predicate(o1, op, msg = nil) click to toggle source

For testing with predicates.

refute_predicate str, :empty?

This is really meant for specs and is front-ended by refute_operator:

str.wont_be :empty?
# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 752
def refute_predicate o1, op, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(o1)} to not be #{op}" }
  refute o1.__send__(op), msg
end
refute_respond_to(obj, meth, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if obj responds to the message meth.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 760
def refute_respond_to obj, meth, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to not respond to #{meth}" }

  refute obj.respond_to?(meth), msg
end
refute_same(exp, act, msg = nil) click to toggle source

Fails if exp is the same (by object identity) as act.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 769
def refute_same exp, act, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    data = [mu_pp(act), act.object_id, mu_pp(exp), exp.object_id]
    "Expected %s (oid=%d) to not be the same as %s (oid=%d)" % data
  }
  refute exp.equal?(act), msg
end
skip(msg = nil, bt = caller) click to toggle source

Skips the current run. If run in verbose-mode, the skipped run gets listed at the end of the run but doesn't cause a failure exit code.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 782
def skip msg = nil, bt = caller
  msg ||= "Skipped, no message given"
  @skip = true
  raise Minitest::Skip, msg, bt
end
skip_until(y,m,d,msg) click to toggle source

Skips the current run until a given date (in the local time zone). This allows you to put some fixes on hold until a later date, but still holds you accountable and prevents you from forgetting it.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 794
def skip_until y,m,d,msg
  skip msg if Time.now < Time.local(y, m, d)
  where = caller.first.split(/:/, 3).first(2).join ":"
  warn "Stale skip_until %p at %s" % [msg, where]
end
skipped?() click to toggle source

Was this testcase skipped? Meant for teardown.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 803
def skipped?
  defined?(@skip) and @skip
end
things_to_diff(exp, act) click to toggle source

Returns things to diff [expect, butwas], or [nil, nil] if nothing to diff.

Criterion:

  1. Strings include newlines or escaped newlines, but not both.

  2. or: String lengths are > 30 characters.

  3. or: Strings are equal to each other (but maybe different encodings?).

  4. and: we found a diff executable.

# File lib/minitest/assertions.rb, line 104
def things_to_diff exp, act
  expect = mu_pp_for_diff exp
  butwas = mu_pp_for_diff act

  e1, e2 = expect.include?("\n"), expect.include?("\\n")
  b1, b2 = butwas.include?("\n"), butwas.include?("\\n")

  need_to_diff =
    (e1 ^ e2                  ||
     b1 ^ b2                  ||
     expect.size > 30         ||
     butwas.size > 30         ||
     expect == butwas)        &&
    Minitest::Assertions.diff

  need_to_diff && [expect, butwas]
end